This book presents a detailed summary of research on automatic layout of device-level analog circuits that was undertaken in the late 1980s and early 1990s at Carnegie Mellon University. We focus on the work behind the creation of the tools called KOAN and ANAGRAM II, which form part of the core of the CMU ACACIA analog CAD system. KOAN is a device placer for custom analog cells; ANANGRAM II a detailed area router for these analog cells. We strive to present the motivations behind the architecture of these tools, including detailed discussion of the subtle technology and circuit concerns that must be addressed in any successful analog or mixed-signal layout tool. Our approach in organizing the chapters of the book has been to present our algo- rithms as a series of responses to these very real and very difficult analog layout problems. Finally, we present numerous examples of results generated by our algorithms. This research was supported in part by the Semiconductor Research Corpora- tion, by the National Science Foundation, by Harris Semiconductor, and by the International Business Machines Corporation Resident Study Program. Finally, just for the record: John Cohn was the designer of the KOAN placer; David Garrod was the designer of the ANAGRAM II router (and its predeces- sor, ANAGRAM I). This book was architected by all four authors, edited by John Cohn and Rob Rutenbar, and produced in finished form by John Cohn.
This book was written to take the mystery out of ESD. It explains how ESD is generated, and how it affects electronic equipment. This explanation brings ESD out of the realm of black magic and into the sphere of science. Even more important, this book explains how to design equipment to prevent ESD problems. This discussion of ESD design solutions not only includes design guidelines, but explains why they work. It also exposes myths that have developed about ESD and why they are incorrect. Finally, this book discusses the methods of testing for ESD problems. This discussion covers not only the test hardware, but also test procedures and methods that ensure meaningful results. The information contained in the following pages should help the reader prevent many (if not most) ESD problems.
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